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article (A-1) Argumentation pour des raisons multiples à propos d'une chose

Abstract : For a long time, Reasons or models, the logical edifices of ideas about « natural » things ("hard" sciences) have been multiple, imperfect, as Popper and Kuhn's work shows. Since the 19th century, it has been known that the same is true of mathematics, and since Gödel it has also been known that it is impossible to conceive a perfectly coherent and complete mathematics. Spinoza's Reason, corresponding to the understanding of the 2nd. genus, proceeds from a demonstrative, axiomatic deductive approach to discern the true from the false. It is a "geometric" reason. Nevertheless for Spinoza, especially in E4, this unique reason allows us to judge what is good or bad for all those under his guidance. With this necessarily common Reason, what is good for one man is then good for every man, which in fact leads to a social behaviour based on concern for the common good, for justice, for mutual help, because favouring the common good would also favour one's own good, one's power to be. Nowadays, it is common to talk about THE Reason, to link Reason with objectivity and ideas-beliefs with subjectivity. This article shows that about everything, everyone is likely to have his or her own reason and that therefore, about one thing, there can be multiple reasons, as in the so-called exact sciences. Our argument for multiple reasons is composed of the following paragraphs: critical analysis of Spinoza's characterisation of Reason, argumentation for the consideration of Multiple Reasons, including the mobilisation of Popper and Kuhn, including for the humanities and including all the Reasons driving life, the daily life of individuals and institutions, philosophers of the time suggesting a link between reason(s) and feelings (Hume, Pascal) Empirical and theoretical demonstration of Multiple Reasons according to his feelings and necessity of his nature. This article leads to the article (A-3) Critique of Reason in Spinoza and introduction of Multiple Reasons in his writings. As a result of this argumentation, Multiple Reasons are thus positioned within the framework of Spinoza's philosophy: of the 2 modes of the attribute Thought, Feelings and Reasons (understanding), the affect mode is primordial and Reasons, concerning the understanding of all things in nature and/or human, are things desired or feared or not according to our ingenium. With regard to a thing, each person's Reason is based on premises driven by his feelings (feelings sedimented from his ingenium and feelings resulting from immediate affections or those linked to the imitation of affects and the power of the multitude) and by what his conatus perceives as "necessities of nature " of the thing, but also those of its nature. Reasons for a thing are thus multiple, each being an edifice of ideas that stands enough to discern the true from the false and each characterised by its premises and arithmetic. The premises of one reason may correspond to immeasurable paradigms for another reason about the same thing (Kuhn). True' and 'false', 'good' and 'bad' can only be considered within the framework of a particular Reason that can be shared ... for a variety of reasons, including the imitation of affects and the power of multitude.
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https://hal-univ-evry.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02326769
Contributor : Andre Moulin Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, December 16, 2021 - 9:28:05 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, December 19, 2021 - 3:34:59 AM

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Andre Moulin. article (A-1) Argumentation pour des raisons multiples à propos d'une chose. 2021. ⟨hal-02326769v3⟩

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