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Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics and liver diseases Recent advances and future clinical applications

Abstract : Metabolomics is defined as the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification. It is an "omics" technique that is situated downstream of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Metabolomics is recognized as a promising technique in the field of systems biology for the evaluation of global metabolic changes. During the last decade, metabolomics approaches have become widely used in the study of liver diseases for the detection of early biomarkers and altered metabolic pathways. It is a powerful technique to improve our pathophysiological knowledge of various liver diseases. It can be a useful tool to help clinicians in the diagnostic process especially to distinguish malignant and non-malignant liver disease as well as to determine the etiology or severity of the liver disease. It can also assess therapeutic response or predict drug induced liver injury. Nevertheless, the usefulness of metabolomics is often not understood by clinicians, especially the concept of metabolomics profiling or fingerprinting. In the present work, after a concise description of the different techniques and processes used in metabolomics, we will review the main research on this subject by focusing specifically on in vitro proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomics approaches in human studies. We will first consider the clinical point of view enlighten physicians on this new approach and emphasis its future use in clinical "routine".
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Roland Amathieu, Mohamed Nawfal Triba, Corentine Goossens, Nadia Bouchemal, Pierre Nahon, et al.. Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics and liver diseases Recent advances and future clinical applications. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Co. Limited, 2016, 22 (1), pp.417-426. ⟨10.3748/wjg.v22.i1.417⟩. ⟨hal-02489949⟩

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