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article (D-7) Lecture spinoziste des différentes rationalités et des thèses de R Boudon

Abstract : Taken from the article "rationality" on Wikipedia, the following quotation allows us to summarize our point of view before proposing a more argued critical analysis of the different rationalities presented by Max Weber and mobilized by sociologists like Raymond Boudon. "In his "general theory of rationality", Raymond Boudon believes that all human action occurs because men are "naturally rational". According to him, rationality is not only that developed by neoclassical economists, who reduce all action to a calculation of interest. Rationality can be linked to values. For example, someone who sacrifices his life for a noble cause is rational. This is called axiological rationality. Believing therefore that values are "universal", Boudon fights relativism in the social sciences ". With regard to the key words (reason, values, universal, relativism), we argue that: (1-) most men desire, for all sorts of "reasons", to be guided by their reason (2-) about anything, everyone, including the researcher, desires to build his reason or to make his own a reason of another, namely an edifice that stands with coherent, consistent and not too incomplete ideas about that thing. This is only possible if, consciously or unconsciously, this edifice of ideas is based on premises which, in fine , derive from what he perceives as requirements of the nature of this thing and his own requirements or are driven by his feelings, his desires Note 1: "in fine" because premises can be propositions arising from a reasoning of an upstream reason, this upstream reason being itself founded on premises, and so on recursively until going back to the most upstream premises which then proceed only from what is perceived as a requirement of nature (e.g. a phenomenon) or from affects (e.g. desire for ..). Thus for David Hume3 , moral statements are driven by feelings and not deduced from reason. Note 2: In the appendix: Moral philosophy through the prism of reason and affect we describe the edifices of ideas that hold for the three types of ethics ("consequentialist", "virtue" and "deontological-teleological") when they are experienced under the guidance of reason (3-) certain premises of their reason about a thing are linked to moral statements or "values" (examples: (1-) self-sacrifice to the point of "sacrificing one's life for a noble cause"; (2-) "every man for myself) to the point of sacrificing the lives of others to satisfy one's desires), (4-) "Values" being of all kinds and diversely shared, only empirical studies, with an interpretive approach, allow to rule on the universality of some or at least on the majority presence of this one or the minority of that one, (5-) Individuals and organisations may hold passionately to their reasons and values, in particular to those on which their reasons are based, and not at all consider them to be "relative", or even debatable. This can lead to all sorts of agreements, (6-) the HSS researcher must attempt to be 'neutral' and non-judgmental when considering the values that animate social actors, individuals and organisations, through a critical and interpretative approach. (7-) (a-) An idea is considered to be "true" if it is consistent with the premises of what are perceived as the requirements of nature, including the requirements of ALL the people involved. (b-) An idea is judged as "right" or not by everyone concerned if it is consistent or not with HIS premises driven in fine by his affects. "Everyone" includes ALL persons, physical or moral in most cases under the guidance of a certain reason , concerned, i.e. being or having been affected, these affections provoking all kinds of affects. The researcher-observer in HSS is also a concerned person, but not the only one! Based on articles by Catherine Colliot-Thélène and Raymond Boudon , we propose to (1-) first explain Max Weber's four "ideal-type" rationalities by mobilising our thesis, (2-) then to complete these rationalities with "scientific" rationalities, those of the so-called "exact" sciences and those of the "human" sciences, (3-) then to complete by taking into account not only the rationalities of individuals but also the rationalities that characterise human organisations and institutions of all kinds, and therefore the dialectics between the rationalities of individuals, between the rationalities of individuals and the organisations that concern them, and between the rationalities of organisations, (4-) to specify what is to be understood by "the right" and "the true" by mobilising R. Boudon's eponymous work.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 5, 2022 - 7:00:11 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 4, 2022 - 10:03:20 AM
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Andre Moulin. article (D-7) Lecture spinoziste des différentes rationalités et des thèses de R Boudon. 2022. ⟨hal-03494659⟩

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