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Theses

Planification de mission pour un système de lancement aéroporté autonome

Abstract : This Ph.D. thesis deals with the systems of autonomous airborne launch vehicles. The originality of this work is based on the mission planning released by a graph-based A* (A-star) pathfinding algorithm. This algorithm was improved to respond to the specifications of this launching mission. It carries out the planning of the shortest path in a three-dimensional space. The optimal path is selected from the interconnections of several waypoints generated in the mission area. An area can be a specific mission phase or a part of the flight plan. The shortest path is identified according to the presence of various obstacles during the path search and its objective is to reach a desired point in the region. The obstacles have various dimensions and orientations in space. The study of their behavior is associated with disturbances coming from the environment. They could be forbidden flight regions or unfavorable atmospheric conditions. The evolution of the latter cannot be always predicted in advance, which still imposes an improvement that can be added in the operation of the algorithm. The path replanning is also possible. Starting from a safe waypoint from an already generated path according to a recently detected obstacle, a new path can be planned from this point considering the new obstacle coordinates to arrive at the desired final configuration. This detection will be taken into account by the sensors situated on the airborne launcher called a carrier to define the final necessary computing time. The waypoints which the airborne vehicle must follow to achieve the important mission goals are not selected in a random manner. Their generation in the search space is defined according to the dynamic limitations of the vehicle. The kinematic and dynamic models of the carrier are also developed in this thesis. These models are studied in an aerodynamic reference frame. This frame treats the presence of the wind which influences the vehicle evolution in space. That enables to consider in a predictive manner several uncertainties coming from the environment or internal for the vehicle. The internal disturbances are caused by the launching mode relied to a significant loss of mass which for certain missions can reach a half of the total mass of the launching system. The planning algorithm treats in a predictive manner - the possibility that the launching is not executed. That can happen if in the launching region a storm is settled or there are several obstacles that avoidance is likely to consume the fuel of the carrier and to prevent the successful return on the landing site. The interconnections between the various waypoints can be often rough and difficult to execute by the airborne launcher. To solve these problems a second module has to be developed to generate a feasible trajectory using the polynomials of third order.. Compared to other techniques this one decreases the calculation time of the trajectory between two consecutive waypoints. The feasible path is easy to follow by the airborne launcher. For the trajectory tracking we introduced into a third module the sliding mode control. The functionality of this control is in the choice of switching surfaces between the current trajectory tracking by the vehicle and the desired trajectory defined by the A* algorithm waypoints and generated by the third order polynomials.
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Svetlana Dicheva. Planification de mission pour un système de lancement aéroporté autonome. Automatique / Robotique. Université d'Evry-Val d'Essonne, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00878784⟩

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